The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the U.S. defense contractor Raytheon and derives its name from the radar component of the weapon system. The AN/MPQ-53 at the heart of the system is known as the “Phased array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target” or the bacronym PATRIOT. The Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U.S. Army’s primary High to Medium Air Defense (HIMAD) system, and replaced the MIM-23 Hawk system as the U.S. Army’s medium tactical air defense system. In addition to these roles, Patriot has been given the function of the U.S. Army’s anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system, which is now Patriot’s primary mission. The system is expected to stay fielded until at least 2040.
Patriot uses an advanced aerial interceptor missile and high-performance radar systems. Patriot was developed at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, which had previously developed the Safeguard ABM system and its component Spartan and hypersonic speed Sprint missiles. The symbol for Patriot is a drawing of a Revolutionary War-era Minuteman.
During the late 1980s, tests began to indicate that, although Patriot was certainly capable of intercepting inbound ballistic missiles, it was questionable whether or not the MIM-104A/B missile was capable of destroying them reliably. This necessitated the introduction of the PAC-2 missile and system upgrade.
For the system, the PAC-2 upgrade was similar to the PAC-1 upgrade. Radar search algorithms were further optimized, and the beam protocol while in “TBM search” was further modified. PAC-2 also saw Patriot’s first major missile upgrade, with the introduction of the MIM-104C, or PAC-2 missile. This missile was optimized for ballistic missile engagements. Major changes to the PAC-2 missile were the size of the projectiles in its blast-fragmentation warhead (changed from around 2 grams to around 45 grams), and the timing of the pulse-Doppler radar fuse, which was optimized for high-speed engagements (though it retained its old algorithm for aircraft engagements if necessary). Engagement procedures were also optimized, changing the method of fire the system used to engage ballistic missiles. Instead of launching two missiles in an almost simultaneous salvo, a brief delay (between 3 and 4-second) was added in order to allow the second missile launched to discriminate a ballistic missile warhead in the aftermath of the explosion of the first.
PAC-2 was first tested in 1987 and reached Army units in 1990, just in time for deployment to the Middle East for the Persian Gulf War. It was there that Patriot was first regarded as a successful ABM system and proof that ballistic missile defense was indeed possible. The complete study on its effectiveness remains classified.
The S-300VM “Antey-2500” (NATO reporting name SA-23 Gladiator\Giant) is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system. The system is designed to defeat short- and medium-range ballistic missiles, aeroballistic and cruise missiles, fixed-wing aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and precision-guided munitions.
It is a downgraded export version of the Russian S-300VM. The main role of the Antey-2500 is to protect task forces and vital industrial and military installations against massed air attacks. It can engage short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, precision guided weapons, strategic and tactical aircraft, as well as early warning and electronic warfare aircraft. Two battalions of these air defense systems have been exported to Venezuela.
The 9M82M missile is intended to defeat tactical, theater and medium range ballistic missiles, as well as aerodynamic targets at a range of up to 200 km. The Antey-2500 system is mounted on a tracked cross-country vehicle equipped with self-contained power supply and navigation systems, as well as surveying and positioning equipment.
The Antey-2500 air defense missile system features:
High degree of battle performance automation owing to high-speed digital computers
Passive electronically scanned array radars with advanced data processing methods
High ECM immunity
High mobility and autonomous operation
High firepower potential, irrespective of air attack tactics or sequence
Vertical launch from a special transport launch canister
Maintenance-free operation of missiles for at least ten years
Capability to defeat ballistic missile individual warheads
Inertial guidance with radio command mid-course update and semi-active radar homing at the terminal phase
Focused detonation of the missile warhead
The Bamse system is one of few systems in the world today that is developed and optimised as a dedicated Ground-Based Air Defence (GBAD) missile system. BAMSE is designed for flexible usage both for stand-alone operation as well as in networks with other sensors and weapon systems.
The philosophy is to optimise system effect by having a number of fully coordinated firing units that together create a ground coverage for the
system of more than 2,100 Km2 and an effective altitude coverage of 15,000 m.
The BAMSE system has excellent built-in ECCM capabilities both in the GIRAFFE AMB surveillance radar and the unique monopulse Fire Control
Radar (FCR) Automatic Command to Line Of Sight (ACLOS) missile guidance function.
The RS-28 РС-28 Сармат (also known as Sarmat, or Sarmatian) SS-X-30 is a future Russian liquid-fueled, MIRV-equipped, super-heavy thermonuclear armed intercontinental ballistic missile in development by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau from 2009, intended to replace the previous SS-18 Satan. Its large payload would allow for up to 10 heavy warheads or 15 lighter ones, and/or a combination of warheads and massive amounts of countermeasures designed to defeat anti-missile systems; it was heralded by the Russian military as a response to the U.S. Prompt Global Strike.
In February 2014, a Russian military official announced the Sarmat was expected to be ready for deployment around 2020. In May that year another official source suggested that the program was being accelerated and that it would, in his opinion, constitute up to 100 percent of Russia’s fixed land-based nuclear arsenal by 2021. At the end of June 2015, it was reported that the production schedule for the first prototype of the Sarmat was slipping. The RS-28 Sarmat is expected to become operational in 2016.
The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 Tриумф, Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau in the 1990s as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007.
The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile.