INS Vikramaditya is the Indian Navy’s largest short take-off, but assisted recovery (STOBAR) aircraft carrier and warship converted from the Russian Navy’s decommissioned Admiral Gorshkov vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) missile cruiser carrier. INS Vikramaditya was commissioned into service in November 2013.
The warship has been extensively refurbished with new propulsion systems, hull sections, sensors and flight deck. It was operationally deployed with full complement of MiG-29 aircraft in May 2014.
The vessel can carry more than 30 long-range multi-role fighters with anti-ship missiles, air-to-air missiles, guided bombs and rockets. The aircraft aboard the carrier include MiG 29K / Sea Harrier combat aircraft, Kamov 31 radar picket Airborne Early Warning (AEW) helicopter, Kamov 28 naval helicopter, Sea King helicopter, ALH-Dhruv, and Chetak helicopter.
INS Vikramaditya project background and details
India entered into negotiations with Russia for the acquisition of Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier in 1994 and signed a memorandum of understanding in December 1998. The Union Government of India and the Federation of Russia signed an inter-governmental agreement for the acquisition in October 2000.
In January 2004, India signed a $1.5bn deal with Russia for the modernisation of Admiral Gorshkov and delivery of 12 single-seat MiG-29K and four two-seat MiG-29KUB aircraft. The refurbishment works were commenced at the FSUE Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk, Russia, in April 2004. The cost for repair and refit of the carrier, spares, infrastructure augmentation and documentation was estimated to be $974m. The modernised warship was initially scheduled to be delivered by August 2008 but was delayed due to cost overruns.
The two countries reached an agreement on the final delivery and entire cost of the upgraded warship in December 2009. The deal was finalised in March 2010, the cost was fixed at $2.33bn and delivery was scheduled for December 2012.
The overhaul was completed by March 2012 and the first sea trials began in June 2012. The delivery was however delayed again due to defects encountered in boilers and the need for replacement of additional electrical cables.
The modernised carrier completed final sea trials in the White Sea in July 2013 and aviation trials in November 2013. The INS Vikramaditya will be integrated with close in weapon system (CIWS) and Barak 8 long-range air-defence system (LR-SAM) between 2015 and 2017.
Major naval projects include the Astute class nuclear submarine, Type 45 air defence destroyer and Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carrier.
The Anti-Submarine Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV), also known as Sea Hunter, arrived in San Diego. The vehicle was lowered into San Diego bay and transited under its own power to the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) will it will continue undergoing its development. The Project is managed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
The Delta class (Project 667B “Murena”, Project 667BD “Murena-M”, Project 667BDR “Kalmar”, Project 667BDRM “Delfin”) are a common name of four types of submarines which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since its introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family, with the Delta I, II, III and IV carrying the R-29 (NATO reporting name: SS-N-8 ‘Sawfly’), R-29D (SS-N-8 ‘Sawfly’), R-29R (SS-N-18 ‘Stingray’) and R-29RM (SS-N-23 ‘Skiff’) respectively. The Delta I carried 12 missiles, Delta II was a Delta I lengthened to carry 16 missiles; the Delta III and IV carry 16 missiles with multiple warheads and have improved electronics and noise reduction.
The R-27 Zyb missile carried by the Project 667s of the late 1960s had a range of just 2,500–3,000 km (1,600–1,900 mi), so the earlier subs were forced to patrol close to the North American coast, whereas the Deltas could launch the >7,700 km (4,780 mi)-range R-29s from the relative safety of the Arctic Ocean. In turn the Deltas were superseded by the larger Typhoon class submarines. The early Deltas remained in service until the 1990s with treaties such as START I. High running costs and the retirement of the Typhoons R-39 missile missiles meant that some Delta IIIs were reactivated in the 2000s (decade) to replace the Typhoons.
In December 2010 Pavel Podvig and russianforces.org estimated the strength of the Russian strategic submarine fleet at one Typhoon class submarine (used to test the R-30 Bulava missile), four Delta III, and six Delta IV class submarines, and one Borei. They will ultimately be replaced by the new Borei class submarines (also known as the Dolgorukiy class).
Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov to Conduct Air Strikes. Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмира́л фло́та Сове́тского Сою́за Кузнецо́в “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov”) is an aircraft cruiser (heavy aircraft-carrying missile cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. She was built by the Black Sea Shipyard, the sole manufacturer of Soviet aircraft carriers, in Mykolaiv within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The initial name of the ship was Riga; she was launched as Leonid Brezhnev, embarked on sea trials as Tbilisi, and finally named Kuznetsov.
She was originally commissioned in the Soviet Navy, and was intended to be the lead ship of her class, but the only other ship of her class, Varyag, was never completed or commissioned by the Soviet, Russian or Ukrainian navy. This second hull was eventually sold to the People’s Republic of China by Ukraine, completed in Dalian and launched as Liaoning. Kuznetsov was named after the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov.